Bank benefits and how banking services work


Banks are an industry that deals with cash, credit and other financial transactions for both individual consumers and companies. Banking provides liquidity for families and businesses to invest in the future, and is one of the major drivers of the U.S. economy.

Definition and examples of banking services

Banking consists of many activities that can be done through a number of financial institutions that accept deposits from individuals and other entities, and then use these funds to make loans, invest and make profits.

Banks can be classified in certain categories based on the type of work you do. Commercial banks offer services to individuals and companies. Retail Banking provides credit, deposit and money management services to individuals and families.

Community Banking

Community banks are smaller than commercial banks. They focus on the local market. They offer a more personalized service and build relationships with their customers.

Internet Banking

Online banking provides these services via the World Wide Web. This sector is also called e-banking, internet banking, and net banking. Most other banks now offer online services. There are many online banks only. Because they have no branches, they can pass on cost savings to the consumer.

Like a lot of online banking services, many banking services can now be fully accomplished through your digital device with your phone. Banking and investment apps continue to grow in popularity and may mean you never have to visit an actual bank at all.

Savings and bank loans

Savings and loans are specialized banking entities, created to promote affordable home ownership. These banks often offer a higher interest rate to depositors as they raise money to lend mortgages.

Credit unions

Credit unions are financial institutions that operate similar to standard banks in many ways, but with a different structure. Clients own their credit unions. This ownership structure allows them to provide low cost and more personalized services. You must be a member of their field of membership to join. They can be employees of companies, schools or 

After Lehman Brothers failed in September 2008, indicating the beginning of the global financial crisis in the late 2000s, investment banks became commercial banks. In return, they must now abide by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

Commercial Banking

Commercial banking provides similar services to small businesses. They provide mezzanine financing, bridge financing and corporate credit production (4).

Banking Law

Legitimate banking services comply with the Islamic ban on interest rates (5). Islamic banks also do not lend to alcohol and gambling businesses (6). For this reason, Islamic banks avoided risky asset classes responsible for the 2008 financial crisis (7).

How banking works

Banks are a safe place to deposit excess cash, and manage funds through products such as savings accounts, deposit certificates and current accounts. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) insures them (8) and banks pay savers a small percentage of the amount deposited based on interest rate.

Banks are currently not required to keep any percentage of each deposit on hand, although the Fed can change that. This regulation is called the reserve requirement. They earn money by charging higher interest rates on their loans than they pay for deposits.

Central Bank

Banks will not be able to provide liquidity without central banks. In the United States, this is the Federal Reserve, but most countries have a copy of the central bank as well. In the United States, the Fed manages banks offered for cash allowed to lend. The Fed has four key tools:

Open market operations occur when the Fed buys or sells securities from member banks. When you buy securities, they add to the money supply

The reserve requirement allows the bank to lend the full amount of its deposites.9

The federal funds interest rate sets a ta

Open market operations occur when the Fed buys or sells securities from member banks. When you buy securities, they add to the money supply

The reserve requirement allows the bank to lend the full amount of its deposites.9

The federal funds interest rate sets a target for banks’ main interest rate. This is the price banks charge their best customers

The discount window is a way for banks to borrow money to support liquidity and stability.

In recent years, banking has become very complex. Banks have ventured into advanced investment and insurance products. This level of development led to the bank credit crisis in 2007.

Remarkable Events

Banks underwent a period of deregulation when Congress repealed the Glass-Steagall Act. This law has prevented commercial banks from using ultra-secure deposits for risky investments. After its cancellation, the lines between investment banks and commercial banks faded. Some commercial banks have started investing in derivatives, such as mortgage-backed securities. When they failed, the depositors panicked.

Another change in deregulation came from the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branch Efficiency Act 1994. The law removed restrictions on interstate banking. This cancellation allowed large regional banks to become national. Large banks devoured small banks where they competed with each other to earn market share.

By the 2008 financial crisis, a small number of large banks controlled most of the assets of the U.S.15 ‘s banking industry. This merger means that many banks are too big to fail. The federal government was forced to save them. If that hadn’t happened, bank failures would have threatened the U.S. economy itself.

Main takeaway

Banking services provide savings, loans, products and investment services to individuals and companies.

There are many types of banks, or financial institutions, with specialized functions and the population they serve.

Banking services are regulated nationally by a central bank – Fed

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