An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon the successful completion of a course in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions typically offer degrees at different levels, including typically bachelor’s, master’s and Ph.D. degrees, often alongside academic degrees and other professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is a bachelor’s degree, although there are lower-level higher education qualifications in some countries that also hold degrees (such as fellowship degrees and foundation degrees).
A doctorate (Latin: doceo “I study”) appeared in medieval Europe as a licence to teach (Latin: licentia docendi) at a medieval university.  Its roots can be traced back to the First Church when the term “doctor” referred to apostles, church fathers and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible.  The right to grant Licentia docendi was originally reserved for the church which requires the applicant to pass an exam, perform the oath of allegiance and pay a fee. The Baccalaureus.The Third Council of Lateran in 1179 guaranteed access – now largely free of charge – to all capable applicants, who, however, are still tested by the church school.  This right remained at odds between church authorities and universities that were slowly liberated, but was granted by the Pope to the University of Paris in 1231 where it became a global licence to teach (licentia ubique docendi).  However, while the licence continued to earn a higher status than the bachelor’s degree, it was eventually reduced to an intermediate degree to a master’s degree and a doctorate, both of which are now exclusively qualified for teaching. 
At the university, doctoral training was a form of vocational training for the union.  The traditional term of study prior to the admission of new teachers to the union “Master of Arts”, seven years, was the same as apprenticeships for other professions. Originally the terms “master” and “doctor” were synonymous,  but over time the doctoral degree became considered a higher qualification than the master’s degree.
Today, the terms “master” (from the Latin word”magister” – literally: “teacher”), “doctor” and”professor” refer to different levels of achievement.
Emergence of bachelor’s degree
In medieval European universities, candidates who completed three or four years of study were in the prescribed texts of triphium (Rules, rhetoric and logic) and quadruple (calculation, engineering, astronomy and music) Together, they are known as liberal arts and have successfully passed their master’s exams, they will be admitted to a bachelor of arts degree, from Latin baccalaureus, a term previously used for jam (i.e., beginner) to knight. Further study, in particular successful participation in disagreements and subsequent modification, would obtain a master’s degree in literature, from the Latin language magister, “master” (which usually refers to the teacher), giving the person the right to teach these subjects. The Master of Arts was eligible to enrol in “higher colleges” in law, medicine or theology and first to obtain a bachelor’s degree and then a master’s degree or doctorate in these subjects. Thus the degree was just a step on the way to becoming a fully qualified master – hence the English word “graduate,” which is based on the Latin gradus (“step”).
Evolution of grading terminology
The name of degrees eventually became associated with the subjects studied. Scholars in the faculties of arts and grammar were known as “masters”, but those in theology, medicine and law were known as”physicians.” Since studying in the arts or rules was a necessary prerequisite for studying in subjects such as theology, medicine and law, the doctor’s degree took a higher place than the master’s degree. This led to a modern hierarchy in which a Doctor of Philosophy was a Master of Arts (MA). The practice of using the term doctoral doctor has evolved within German universities and has spread throughout the academic world. (Ph.D.), in its current form as a degree based on research and thesis evolving from German universities in the 18th and 19th centuries, a degree more advanced than the
French terms are closely related to the original meaning of the terms. The bachelor’s degree is awarded to French students who have successfully completed their secondary education and accepted the student to university. When students graduate from university, they are granted a licence, just as they are.
Degrees awarded by institutions other than universities
In the past, degrees were also issued directly by the King’s authority or bishop, rather than by any educational institution. This practice is mostly dead. In Great Britain, the Archbishop of Canterbury still awarded Lambeth scores.  The right of the Archbishop of Canterbury to award degrees derives from the Peter Pence Act of 1533 which empowered the Archbishop to grant the disabilities previously granted
Among the educational institutions, St. David’s College, Lampeter was granted limited powers to award degrees under the Royal Charter of the 19th Century, despite not being a university. University College North Staffordshire was also granted the powers to award degrees on its founding in 1949, although it did not become a university (such as Kelly University) until 1962. Following the Education Reform Act 1988, many educational institutions other than universities were granted the powers to award degrees, including colleges of higher education and University of London colleges (many of which are already universities per se).
Laws on the Granting and Use of Degrees
Non-accredited higher education institutions
In many countries, degrees may only be awarded by institutions authorized to do so by the national or regional government. Governments also frequently regulate the use of universities in corporate names. This approach follows, for example, Australia and the United Kingdom. The use of fake certificates by individuals, whether obtained from a fictitious institution or simply invented, is often covered by fraud laws.